Übersetzungen für Gaelic im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: Gaelic, Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic. Übersetzung im Kontext von „(Gaelic“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: gaelic, scottish gaelic. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Gaelic im Online-Wörterbuch hondenleven.eu ( Deutschwörterbuch).
There is, however, a growing body of Irish speakers in urban areas, most coming through the Gaelscoilenna , national schools, and a small number of secondary schools, in which Irish is the sole language of instruction.
These Irish-medium schools send a much higher [ clarification needed ] proportion of pupils on to third-level education than do "mainstream" schools, and it seems increasingly possible that, within a generation, non-Gaeltacht habitual users of Irish will typically be members of an urban, middle class and highly-educated minority.
Parliamentary legislation is supposed to be available in both Irish and English but is frequently only available in English. This is notwithstanding that Article In November , it was reported that many people worldwide were learning Irish through the Duolingo app.
There are rural areas of Ireland where Irish is still spoken daily to some extent as a first language.
According to data compiled by the Department of Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs , only one quarter of households in officially Gaeltacht areas are fluent in Irish.
The Irish Times , referring to his analysis published in the Irish language newspaper Foinse , quoted him as follows: In the s, when the Irish Free State was founded, Irish was still a vernacular in some western coastal areas.
Today, the strongest Gaeltacht areas, numerically and socially, are those of South Connemara , the west of the Dingle Peninsula and northwest Donegal, where many residents still use Irish as their primary language.
Irish language summer colleges in the Gaeltacht are attended by tens of thousands of teenagers annually. All aspects of Irish culture and tradition are encouraged.
Before the partition of Ireland in , Irish was recognised as a school subject and as "Celtic" in some third level institutions.
Between and , Northern Ireland had devolved government. The context of this hostility was the use of the language by nationalists.
In the St Andrews Agreement the British government promised to enact "an Irish Language Act" to promote the language  but as of it has yet to do so.
There is currently an ongoing debate in relation to the status of the language in the form of an Irish Language Act.
Irish became an official language of the EU on 1 January , meaning that MEPs with Irish fluency can now speak the language in the European Parliament and at committees, although in the case of the latter they have to give prior notice to a simultaneous interpreter in order to ensure that what they say can be interpreted into other languages.
Any expansion in the range of documents to be translated will depend on the results of the first five-year review and on whether the Irish authorities decide to seek an extension.
The Irish government has committed itself to train the necessary number of translators and interpreters and to bear the related costs.
Before Irish became an official language it was afforded the status of treaty language and only the highest-level documents of the EU were made available in Irish.
The Irish language was carried abroad in the modern period by a vast diaspora , chiefly to Britain and North America, but also to Australia , New Zealand and Argentina.
The first large movements began in the 17th century, largely as a result of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland , which saw many Irish sent to the West Indies.
Irish emigration to the United States was well established by the 18th century, and was reinforced in the s by thousands fleeing from the Famine.
This flight also affected Britain. Up until that time most emigrants spoke Irish as their first language, though English was establishing itself as the primary language.
Irish speakers had first arrived in Australia in the late 18th century as convicts and soldiers, and many Irish-speaking settlers followed, particularly in the s.
New Zealand also received some of this influx. Argentina was the only non-English-speaking country to receive large numbers of Irish emigrants, and there were few Irish speakers among them.
Relatively few of the emigrants were literate in Irish, but manuscripts in the language were brought to both Australia and the United States, and it was in the United States that the first newspaper to make significant use of Irish was established: In Australia, too, the language found its way into print.
The Gaelic revival, which started in Ireland in the s, found a response abroad, with branches of Conradh na Gaeilge being established in all the countries to which Irish speakers had emigrated.
The decline of Irish in Ireland and a slowing of emigration helped to ensure a decline in the language abroad, along with natural attrition in the host countries.
Despite this, small groups of enthusiasts continued to learn and cultivate Irish in diaspora countries and elsewhere, a trend which strengthened in the second half of the 20th century.
Today the language is taught at tertiary level in North America, Australia and Europe, and Irish speakers outside Ireland contribute to journalism and literature in the language.
There are significant Irish-speaking networks in the United States and Canada;  figures released for the period — show that 22, Americans claimed to speak Irish at home.
The Irish language is also one of the languages of the Celtic League , a non-governmental organisation that promotes self-determination and Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany , Cornwall and the Isle of Man, known as the Celtic nations.
It places particular emphasis on the indigenous Celtic languages. Irish was spoken as a community language until the early 20th century on the island of Newfoundland , in a form known as Newfoundland Irish.
Of the 73, daily Irish speakers outside the education system , 20, Irish is represented by several traditional dialects and by various varieties of "urban" Irish.
The latter have acquired lives of their own and a growing number of native speakers. Differences between the dialects make themselves felt in stress, intonation, vocabulary and structural features.
Newfoundland , in eastern Canada, had a form of Irish derived from the Munster Irish of the later 18th century see Newfoundland Irish. Of the three counties, the Irish spoken in Cork and Kerry are quiet similar while that of Waterford is more distinct.
Historically, Connacht Irish represents the westernmost remnant of a dialect area which once stretched from east to west across the centre of Ireland.
Much closer to the larger Connacht Gaeltacht is the dialect spoken in the smaller region on the border between Galway Gaillimh and Mayo Maigh Eo.
Features in Connacht Irish differing from the official standard include a preference for verbal nouns ending in -achan , e. The non-standard pronunciation of the Gaeltacht Cois Fharraige area with lengthened vowels and heavily reduced endings gives it a distinct sound.
In addition Connacht and Ulster speakers tend to include the "we" pronoun rather than use the standard compound form used in Munster, e.
As in Munster Irish, some short vowels are lengthened and others diphthongised before - nn , - m , - rr , - rd , - ll , in monosyllabic words and in the stressed syllable of multisyllabic words where the syllable is followed by a consonant.
This placing of the B-sound is also present at the end of words ending in vowels, such as acu pronounced as "acub" and leo pronounced as "lyohab".
There is also a tendency to omit the "g" sound in words such as agam , agat and againn , a characteristic also of other Connacht dialects.
All these pronunciations are distinctively regional. The pronunciation prevalent in the Joyce Country the area around Lough Corrib and Lough Mask is quite similar to that of South Connemara, with a similar approach to the words agam , agat and againn and a similar approach to pronunciation of vowels and consonants.
But there are noticeable differences in vocabulary, with certain words such as doiligh difficult and foscailte being preferred to the more usual deacair and oscailte.
The northern Mayo dialect of Erris Iorras and Achill Acaill is in grammar and morphology essentially a Connacht dialect, but shows some similarities to Ulster Irish due to large-scale immigration of dispossessed people following the Plantation of Ulster.
Irish President Douglas Hyde was possibly one of the last speakers of the Roscommon dialect of Irish. Ulster Irish is the dialect spoken in the Gaeltacht regions of Donegal.
The Irish-speaking communities in other parts of Ulster are a result of language revival — English-speaking families deciding to learn Irish.
Ulster Irish sounds quite different to the other two main dialects. It shares several features with southern dialects of Scottish Gaelic and Manx , as well as having lots of characteristic words and shades of meanings.
However, since the demise of those Irish dialects spoken natively in what is today Northern Ireland, it is probably an exaggeration to see present-day Ulster Irish as an intermediary form between Scottish Gaelic and the southern and western dialects of Irish.
Down to the early 19th century and even later, Irish was spoken in all twelve counties of Leinster. The evidence furnished by placenames, literary sources and recorded speech indicates that there were three dialects spoken in Leinster.
The main dialect was represented by a broad central belt stretching from west Connacht eastwards to the Liffey estuary and southwards to Wexford , though with many local variations.
Two smaller dialects were represented by the Ulster speech of counties Meath and Louth, which extended as far south as the Boyne valley , and a Munster dialect found in Kilkenny and south Laois.
The main dialect had characteristics which survive today only in the Irish of Connacht. It typically placed the stress on the first syllable of a word, and showed a preference found in placenames for the pronunciation cr where the standard spelling is cn.
The word cnoc hill would therefore be pronounced croc. East Leinster showed the same diphthongisation or vowel lengthening as in Munster and Connacht Irish in words like poll hole , cill monastery , coill wood , ceann head , cam crooked and dream crowd.
By the late 15th century it consisted of an area along the coast from Dalkey , south of Dublin , to the garrison town of Dundalk , with an inland boundary encompassing Naas and Leixlip in the Earldom of Kildare and Trim and Kells in County Meath to the north.
In this area of "Englyshe tunge" English had never actually been a dominant language - and was moreover a relatively late comer; the first colonisers were Normans who spoke Norman French, and before these Norse.
The Irish language had always been the language of the bulk of the population. With the strengthening of English cultural and political control, language change began to occur, but this did not become clearly evident until the 18th century.
English expanded strongly in Leinster in the 18th century, but Irish speakers were still numerous. In the decennial period —81 certain counties had estimated percentages of Irish speakers as follows though the estimates are likely to be too low: The proportion of Irish-speaking children in Leinster went down as follows: The Irish census of showed that there were still a number of older speakers in County Dublin.
Irish was spoken as a community language in Irish towns and cities down to the 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was widespread even in Dublin and the Pale.
The Irish of Dublin, situated as it was between the east Ulster dialect of Meath and Louth to the north and the Leinster-Connacht dialect further south, may have reflected the characteristics of both in phonology and grammar.
In County Dublin itself the general rule was to place the stress on the initial vowel of words. With time it appears that the forms of the dative case took over the other case endings in the plural a tendency found to a lesser extent in other dialects.
In a letter written in Dublin in we find such examples as the following: English authorities of the Cromwellian period, aware that Irish was widely spoken in Dublin, arranged for its official use.
In several local dignitaries were ordered to oversee a lecture in Irish to be given in Dublin. There is contemporary evidence of the use of Irish in other urban areas at the time.
In it was found necessary to have an Oath of Abjuration rejecting the authority of the Pope read in Irish in Cork so that people could understand it.
In other urban centres the descendants of medieval Anglo-Norman settlers, the so-called Old English , were Irish-speaking or bilingual by the 16th century.
The census of showed that the towns and cities of Munster still had significant Irish-speaking populations. This continued until the end of the century, when the Gaelic revival saw the creation of a strong Irish—speaking network, typically united by various branches of the Conradh na Gaeilge , and accompanied by renewed literary activity.
Urban Irish has been the beneficiary, over the last few decades, of a rapidly expanding independent school system, known generally as Gaelscoileanna.
These schools teach entirely through Irish, and there are over thirty in Dublin alone. It is likely that the number of urban native speakers i.
It is presently uncertain whether the urban Irish of non-native speakers will become a dialect in its own right or grow further apart from native Gaeltacht Irish and become a creole i.
Its rules are followed by most schools in Ireland, though schools in and near Irish-speaking regions also use the local dialect.
There is no official standard for pronouncing the Irish language. The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish.
In recent decades contacts between speakers of different dialects have become more frequent and the differences between the dialects are less noticeable.
In pronunciation, Irish most closely resembles its nearest relatives, Scottish Gaelic and Manx. While broad—slender pairs are not unique to Irish being found, for example, in Russian , in Irish they have a grammatical function.
Irish is a fusional , VSO , nominative-accusative language. Irish is neither verb nor satellite framed , and makes liberal use of deictic verbs.
Nouns decline for 3 numbers: Adjectives agree with nouns in number , gender , and case. Adjectives generally follow nouns, though some precede or prefix nouns.
Demonstrative adjectives have proximal , medial , and distal forms. The prepositional case is called the dative by convention.
Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: Verbs conjugate for 3 persons and an impersonal form in which no agent can be determined.
There are two verbs for "to be", one for inherent qualities , and one for transient qualities. The passive voice and many other forms are periphrastic.
There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative , interrogative , subjunctive , relative clauses , etc. There is a verbal noun , and verbal adjective.
Verb forms are highly regular , many grammars recognise only 11 irregular verbs. Prepositions inflect for person and number.
Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics. The word ag at , becomes agam at me in the first person singular.
Irish shares this attribute with Russian. Numerals have 4 forms: In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations , which express grammatical relationship and meaning in verbs, nouns and adjectives:.
Mutations are often the only way to distinguish grammatical forms. For example, the only non-contextual way to distinguish possessive pronouns "her," "his" and "their", is through initial mutations since all meanings are represented by the same word a.
Due to initial mutation , prefixes , clitics , suffixes , root inflection , ending morphology , elision , sandhi , epinthesis , and assimilation ; the beginning, core, and end of words can each change radically and even simultaneously depending on context.
Modern Irish traditionally used the Latin alphabet without the letters j, k, q, w, x, y and z. However, some Gaelicised words use those letters: In idiomatic English usage, this diacritic is frequently referred to simply as the fada , where the adjective is used as a noun.
The fada serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. In modern Irish, the letter h suffixed to a consonant indicates that the consonant is lenited.
It simplified and standardised the orthography. Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language.
Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected. The standard spelling does not necessarily reflect the pronunciation used in particular dialects.
For example, in standard Irish, bia , "food", has the genitive bia. Another example would be the word crua , meaning "hard". Lenition of c , p , and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked.
Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were written using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.
Today, Gaelic type and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e. Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets see Latin Extended Additional chart.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Goidelic Gaelic language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people. For other uses, see Irish language disambiguation.
United Kingdom Northern Ireland . Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland censuses of History of the Irish language.
Status of the Irish language. Irish language in Northern Ireland. Irish language outside Ireland and Irish language in Newfoundland. Irish grammar , Irish declension , Irish conjugation , and Irish syntax.
It included Greek, Hebrew and Celtic neologisms. Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference. Gaelic football , Irish Gaelic , Gaelic language.
Of or relating to the Gaels or their culture or languages. Any of the Goidelic languages, especially: Peoples of, denoting, or relating to the Celtic people of Ireland, Scotland, or the Isle of Man or their language or customs.
Languages of, denoting, or relating to the Celtic people of Ireland, Scotland, or the Isle of Man or their language or customs.
Placename of, denoting, or relating to the Celtic people of Ireland, Scotland, or the Isle of Man or their language or customs.
Switch to new thesaurus. Celtic , Celtic language - a branch of the Indo-European languages that judging from inscriptions and place names was spread widely over Europe in the pre-Christian era.
Irish Gaelic , Irish - the Celtic language of Ireland. Manx - the ancient Gaelic formerly spoken on the Isle of Man; the language is sometimes used on ceremonial occasions.
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