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This made also the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover one of the few Protestant churches in Germany using the title of bishop already since the s, thus prior to the Nazi era , with State Bishop August Marahrens , change its mind.
Reinhold Krause, then president of the Greater Berlin section of the German Christians , held a speech, defaming the Old Testament for its alleged "Jewish morality of rewards" German: A wave of protest flooded over the German Christians , which ultimately initiated the decline of that movement.
On 25 November the complete Bavarian section of the German Christians declared its secession. Many presbyters of German Christian alignment retired, tired from disputing.
The verdict would have major consequences for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. In a series of provincial synods the opposition assumed shape.
Martin Albertz, elected its first provincial brethren council , comprising Supt. The Gestapo shut down one office of the provincial brethren council after the other.
The Gestapo summoned her more than 40 times and tried to intimidate her, confronting her with the fact that she, being partly of Jewish descent, would have to realise the worst possible treatment in jail.
Some functionaries and laymen in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union opposed the unification of the 28 Protestant church bodies, but many more agreed, but they wanted it under the preservation of the true Protestant faith, not imposed by Nazi partisans.
In reaction to the convention and claims of the German Christians non-Nazi Protestants met in Barmen from 29 to 31 May On 29 May those coming from congregations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union held a separate meeting, their later on so-called first old-Prussian Synod of Confession German: The participants declared this basis to be binding for any Protestant Church deserving that name and confessed their allegiance to this basis see Barmen Theological Declaration.
Henceforth the movement of all Protestant denominations, opposing Nazi adulteration of Protestantism and Nazi intrusion into Protestant church affairs, was called the Confessing Church German: Presbyteries with German Christian majorities often banned Confessing Christians from using church property and even entering the church buildings.
Many church employees, who opposed, were dismissed. While the German Christians , holding the majority in most official church bodies, lost many supporters, the Confessing Christians , comprising many authentical persuasive activists, still remained a minority but increased their number.
As compared to the vast majority of indifferent, non-observing Protestants, both movements were marginal.
One pre tradition of non-ecclesiastical influence within church structures had made it into the new constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union of Many of the churches, which had been founded before the 19th century, had a patron holding the ius patronatus , meaning that either the owner of a manor estate in the countryside or a political municipality or city was in charge of maintaining the church buildings and paying the pastor.
No pastor could be appointed without the consent of the patron advowson. This became a curse and a blessing during the Nazi period.
While all political entities were Nazi-streamlined they abused the patronage to appoint Nazi-submissive pastors on the occasion of a vacancy.
Also estate owners sometimes sided with the Nazis. But more estate owners were conservative and thus rather backed the opposition in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.
So the congregations under their patronage could often keep or appoint anew a pastor of the intra-church opposition. On 9 August the Second National Synod , with all synodals again admitted by the Spiritual Ministerium , severed the uniformation of the formerly independent Protestant church bodies, disenfranchising their respective synods to decide in internal church matters.
These pretensions increased the criticism among church members within the streamlined church bodies. A breakthrough was the verdict of 20 November But the prior dismissals of opponents and impositions of loyal German Christians in many church functions were not reversed.
Werner regained his authority as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. These activities completely depended on donations.
In the Gestapo closed the seminaries in the east. Iwand, on whom in the Gestapo had inflicted the nationwide prohibition to speak in the public, reopened a seminary in Dortmund in January This earned him an imprisonment of four month in the same year.
Among their examiners were originally professors of the Frederick William University of Berlin , who refrained from examining after their employer, the Nazi government, threatened to dismiss them in The Gestapo forbade the opening ceremony in Dahlem, thus Supt.
Albertz spontaneously celebrated it in St. On 4 December, the Gestapo closed the KiHo altogether, thus the teaching and learning continued underground at changing locations.
Among the teachers were Supt. The synodals elected by all confessing congregations and the congregations of the intact churches decided to found an independent German Evangelical Church.
Since the confessing congregations would have to contravene the laws as interpreted by the official church bodies, the synod developed an emergency law of its own.
Bruderrat as provisional presbytery, and a Confessing congregation assembly German: The Confessing congregations of each deanery formed a Confessing deanery synod German: Kreis-Bekenntnissynode , electing a deanery brethren council German: If the superintendent of a deanery clung to the Confessing Church , he was accepted, otherwise a deanery pastor German: Kreispfarrer was elected from the midst of the Confessing pastors in the deanery.
Confessing congregants elected synodals for a Confessing provincial synod as well as Confessing State synod German: Landes-Bekenntnissynode , who again elected a provincial brethren council or the state brethren council of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union colloquially old-Prussian brethren council , and a council of the Confessing ecclesiastical province German: Rat der Bekennenden Kirche of the respective ecclesiastical province or the council of the Confessing Church of the old-Prussian Union , the respective administrative bodies.
Any obedience to the official bodies of the destroyed church of the old-Prussian Union was to be rejected. In Berlin Confessing Christians celebrated the constitution of their church on the occasion of the Reformation Day 31 October The Gestapo forbade them any public event, thus the festivities had to take place in closed rooms with bidden guests only.
All the participants had to carry a so-called red card , identifying them as proponents of the Confessing Church.
On 7 December the Gestapo forbade the Confessing Church to rent any location, in order to prevent future events like that.
The Nazi government then forbade any mentioning of the Kirchenkampf in which media whatsoever. Hitler was informed about the proceedings in Dahlem and invited the leaders of the three Lutheran intact churches , Marahrens, Meiser and Wurm.
Dahlemiten , and the more moderate Lutheran intact churches and many opposing functionaries and clergy in the destroyed churches , which had not yet been dismissed.
Between end of and March the central office of the Preliminary Church Executive was located in the Burckhardt-Haus of the school for social workers German: The synodals decided that the Confessing Church of the old-Prussian Union should unite with the destroyed official Church of the old-Prussian Union.
The synodals further adopted a declaration about the Nazi racist doctrine. The same month the declaration was read in all confessing congregations, that the Nazi racist doctrine, claiming there were a Jewish and an Aryan race, was pure mysticism.
In reaction to that the Nazi government arrested pastors, who had read this declaration from their pulpits.
From then on every Tuesday the brethren councils issued updated lists with the names of the imprisoned. Since the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany levied contributions from their parishioners by a surcharge on the income tax , collected and then transferred by the state tax offices, the official church bodies denied the confessing congregations their share in the contributions.
Each congregation had its own budget and the official church authorities transferred the respective share in the revenues to the legitimate presbytery of each congregations, be it governed by German Christians or Confessing Christians.
All budgets and remittances were to be confirmed by state comptrollers. On 11 April an ordinance ordered that salaries were only to be remitted to orderly appointed employees and all future appointments of whomsoever, would only take effect with the consent of the financial departments.
He turned out to ignore the rules and to largely use his scope of discretion. Thus Confessing congregations outside of Berlin built up a new network of escrow accounts.
Confessing Christians of laity and Covenant pastors, still undisputedly receiving a full salary from the official church, agreed to substantial contributions to maintain the Confessing Church.
But the synodals did not adopt a declaration, prepared by Supt. Albertz, condemning the Nuremberg Laws. Wurm was elected speaker of the Confessing Church.
Since the orderly courts often approved litigations against German Christian measurements, because they usually lacked any legal basis, on 26 June the Nazi government passed a law, which would ban all suits about church questions from being decided by orderly jurisdiction.
Thus the Nazi government cut off the Confessing Church from appealing to courts. Orderly courts could not overrule its decisions. In fact the Decision-Taking Office only acted up after the compromises failed in In the following years of compromising Hermann Ehlers became a legal advisor of the old-Prussian brethren council , until he was arrested from June to July , which made him quit his collaboration.
Therefore, he dropped the extreme German Christians and tried to win moderate Confessing Christians and respected neutrals. On 24 September , a new law empowered Kerrl to legislate by way of ordinances within the Protestant church bodies, circumventing any synodal autonomy.
On 10 September the old-Prussian brethren council convened preparing the upcoming third old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Steglitz Synod.
Albertz urged the brethren council to discuss the terrible situation of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent, as it turned by the Nuremberg Laws and all the other anti-Semitic discriminations.
This was completely denied by the German Christians since , reserving Christianity as a religion exclusively for Gentiles, but also some Confessing Christians refused the baptism of Jews.
Reichskirchenausschuss , RKA on 3 October , combining neutral, moderate Confessing Christians and moderate German Christians to reconcile the disputing church parties.
In the course of November state ecclesiastical committees and provincial ecclesiastical committees were to be formed. Kerrl appointed a state ecclesiastical committee German: Wilhelm Ewald Schmidt Oberhausen und Supt.
In November Kerrl decreed the parallel institutions of the Confessing Church to be dissolved, which was protested and ignored by the brethren councils.
On 19 December Kerrl issued a decree which forbade all kinds of Confessing Church activities, namely appointments of pastors, education, examinations, ordinations, ecclesiastical visitations, announcements and declarations from the pulpit, separate financial structures and convening Synods of Confession; further the decree established provincial ecclesiastical committees.
The Confessing Church in the Rhenish and Westphalian ecclesiastical provinces blocked in fact the formation of provincial ecclesiastical committees until 14 February The March of Brandenburg provincial ecclesiastical committee est.
On 6 January, the members elected Zimmermann their president. This was the case in the deanery of Berlin-Spandau. As a gesture of reconciliation the state ecclesiastical committee for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union legitimised all ordinations and examinations of the Confessing Church retroactively for the time from 1 January to 30 November Nevertheless, the Confessing Church refused to accept the new examination office of the state ecclesiastical committee.
Thus Kerrl successfully wedged the Confessing Church. On 4 December the March of Brandenburg provincial Synod of Confession agreed to split in two provincial subsections, one for Greater Berlin and one comprising the political Province of Brandenburg with two provincial brethren councils, led by Gerhard Jacobi Berlin, resigned in , but quarrels between the moderate and the Dahlemites continued and by Scharf Brandenburg , who followed the Dahlemite guidelines.
The first Preliminary Church Executive resigned, since its members, representing intact churches , wanted to co-operate with the committees, while its members from destroyed churches , especially the Dahlemites did not.
Also the different provincial brethren councils within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union were dissented. While most brethren councillors of Berlin wanted to co-operate, the brethren council of Brandenburg without Berlin , of the Rhineland and the overall old-Prussian brethren council strictly opposed any compromises.
Albertz, Bernhard Heinrich Forck St. Rat der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche Deutschlands , colloquially Lutherrat , Luther council as their own umbrella organisation.
However, the state brethren councils of the destroyed churches met occasionally in conferences. Under the impression of more foreign visitors in Germany, starting with the Winter Olympics the year of was a relatively peaceful period.
Kerrl let the committees do, as they liked. Also the anti-Semitic agitation was softened. However, the Sinti and Roma in Berlin realised the first mass internments, in order to present Berlin zigeunerfrei for the Summer Olympics.
But the less visible phenomena of the police state, like house searches, seizures of pamphlets and printed matters as well as the suppression of Confessing Church press continued.
At Pentecost 31 May the second preliminary church executive issued a memorandum to Hitler, also read from the pulpits, condemning anti-Semitism, concentration camps , the state terrorism.
A preliminary version had been published in foreign media earlier. On the next day until the 18th the fourth old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Breslau Synod convened in Breslau, discussing the work of the ecclesiastical committees and how to continue the education and ordinations in the scope of the Confessing Church.
Meanwhile, the Olympic close hunting season had ended. The Gestapo increased its suppression, undermining the readiness for compromises among the Confessing Church.
Zoellner concluded that this made his reconciliatory work impossible and criticised the Gestapo activities. The open gap in governance of the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union was filled by the still existing Evangelical Supreme Church Council under Werner and by the consistories on the provincial level.
Werner now systematically drained the financial sources of the Confessing Church. Werner became the man of Kerrl. From now on the ministry of church affairs subjected also the other Protestant church bodies, which in amounted after mergers to 23, to state controlled financial committees.
Any attempt to impose a union upon all Protestant church bodies was given up. The government now preferred to fight individual opponents by prohibitions to publish, to hold public speeches, by domiciliary arrest, banishments from certain regions, and imprisonment.
Since 9 June collections of money were subject to strict state confirmation, regularly denied to the Confessing Church. In the period of the committee policy, unapproved collections were tolerated but now Confessing pastors were systematically imprisoned, who were denounced for having collected money.
On 10—13 May synodals convened in Halle upon Saale to discuss denominational questions of the Reformed, Lutheran and united congregations within the old-Prussian Confessing Church.
The fifth old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Lippstadt Synod convened its synodals in Lippstadt on 21—27 August debating financial matters.
In autumn the Gestapo further suppressed the underground theological education KiHo and systematically fought any examinations within the Confessing Church.
On 10 December the ministry of church affairs appointed Werner as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council.
Werner then restaffed the March of Brandenburg consistory, newly appointing Johannes Heinrich as consistorial president after almost a year of vacancy and three further members of German Christian affiliation: All pastors of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union should swear an oath of allegiance to Hitler.
In May the seventh Synod of Confession of the Rhenish ecclesiastical province refused to comply, since it was not the state, which demanded the oath.
The sixth old-Prussian Synod of Confession convened twice in Berlin, once in the Nikolassee Church 11—13 June and a second time in the parish hall of the Steglitz Congregation 31 July.
However, the consistories demanded the oath, but in the Rhenish ecclesiastical province only out pastors refused to swear. The ever-growing discrimination of Jewish Germans including the special category of Geltungsjuden and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent drove them ever deeper into impoverishment.
The project was in a tailspin since the oecumenical partners in the US demanded to exclude persons of Jewish faith, before it definitely failed because the Nazi government expelled Siegmund-Schultze from Germany.
Thus that new association had lost its most prominent leaders and faded, having become an organisation of so-called Mischlinge of Nazi terminology.
She joined the office of Spiero. The Bureau was mainly busy with supporting the re-education in other vocations, not yet prohibited for Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent, and with finding nations of exile, who would grant immigration visa.
In the night of 9 November the Nazi government organised the November Pogrom , often euphemised as Kristallnacht. The well-organised Nazi squads killed several hundreds, set nine out of 12 major synagogues in Berlin on fire 1, synagogues all over Germany , 1, Jewish Berliners were deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
The Nazis only released the arrested inmates, if they would immediately emigrate. Thus getting visa became the main target and problem.
While Bishop George Bell tried and managed to rescue many of the imprisoned pastors, successfully persuading the Church of England to provide them through the British government with British visa, the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union did not even try to intervene in favour of its imprisoned clergy.
Thus none of the Protestant pastors of Jewish descent remained in or returned to office. Paul Heinitz, moved into the new location. A welfare department under Richard Kobrak supported the often impoverished victims of persecution and Margarete Draeger organised the Kindertransporte.
Erwin Reisner served the victims as chaplain. Auswandererabgabe , charging wealthier emigrants in order to finance the emigration of the poorer.
The due was also used to finance the different recognised associations organising emigration. Minister Rust had banned all pupils of Jewish descent from attending public schools from 15 November on.
By autumn a new degree of persecution loomed. On 27 February the Gestapo arrested and deported him by end of May to Dachau concentration camp , where he was murdered in August The Family school was ordered to close by the end of June Draeger dived into the underground by the end of , hiding in Berlin and surviving through some undaunted helpers, but was caught later and deported to Auschwitz in August , where she perished.
Persons hiding from deportation used to call themselves submarine German: The fate of other collaborators of the Bureau: In three quarters of the fostered survivors were unemployed and poor.
In the night between 9 and 10 November the Nazis organised the November Pogrom. The pastors were recommended the following text: Help that nobody will act vengefully against them.
Especially do not let disrupt the bond of love to those, who are standing with us in the same true belief and who are through Him like us Thy children.
Holding Synods of Confession had been forbidden since , but now after the Olympic close hunting season had ended the authorities effectively fought the preparations and holding of the synods.
Thus synods had to be prepared in secret, therefore they were not referred to by the name of their venue any more, keeping the venue as long as possible in secret.
On 18 and 20 March Werner, the president of Evangelical Supreme Church Council , severed the dismissal of opposing pastors by new ordinances, which empowered him to redeploy pastors against their will.
With the beginning of the war 1 September Kerrl decreed the separation of the ecclesiastical and the administrative governance within the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.
Werner remained administrative chief executive president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , an ecclesiastical executive was still to be found.
Geistlicher Vertrauensrat , taking the ecclesiastical leadership for the German Evangelical Church from early on. From on the Nazis had tested the reaction of the general public to the murder of incurably sick people by films, articles, books and reports covering the subject.
The murder of the handicapped and the incurably sick was euphemised as Euthanasia. Similar to our Christmas stocking tradition, except the naughty children would get a lump of coal!
These photos are gorgeous, and your outfit looks so cozy! That sounds like such a fun and simple tradition! This post is putting me in the Christmas spirit!
Also, I love your hat, with the little pom on the end: Die Bilder sind ja richtig toll: D Dein Outfit sieht super aus und die Location passt wunderbar: Wir haben hier keine solche Tradition; bei uns gibt es Adventskalender meistens Schokolade und dann Geschenke an Weihnachten: Ich wusste gar nicht, dass es die Nikolaus Tradition in der Schweiz nicht gibt aber Schokoadventskalender sind ja auch echt gut!
Opas Adventskalender - 31 Adventskalendergeschichten. Oma und ich und die Weihnachtszeit. Mia und die Zauberschaukel. Von Engeln und Bengeln. Mia und das Adventssternchen.
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